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Outreach and Service
Sustainability Analysis of the Road Infrastructure
We worked on various topic related to road sustainability. Our research lab has measured metal concentrations in road runoff in Toledo roads and developed a simple model to estimate metal release rates from traffic sources. We have also looked into recycled material use in road construction using contaminant fate and transport models, life cycle assessment, and multi criteria decision analysis. We developed a web based software, Beneficial Reuse Model (
for comparing and ranking road construction materials using life cycle assessment and multi criteria decision analysis.
Publications on Road Sustainability
1. Apul, D.S., Gardner, K., Eighmy, T., Brannaka L., and Benoit, J. (2001) A review of water movement in the highway environment: Implications for recycled materials use, Report to the Federal Highway Administration.
2. Apul, D.S., Gardner, K., and Eighmy, T. (2003) A probabilistic source assessment framework for leaching from recycled materials in highway applications, Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 5(2), p120-127.
3. Apul, D.S., Gardner, K.H., Eighmy, T.T., Brannaka, L., and Benoit, J. (2003) A review of water movement in the highway environment: Implications for the recycled materials use in Beneficial Use of Recycled Materials in Transportation Applications, edited by T.T. Eighmy, Air and Waste Management Association Press, pp. 195-204.
4. Apul, D.S., Gardner K.H., and Eighmy, T.T. (2003) Comparison of risks from traditional and recycled road construction materials: accounting for variability in contaminant release estimates, in Comparative Risk Assessment and Environmental Decision Making, Edited by I. Linkov and A. Ramadan, Kluwer, Amsterdam, pp. 75-82.
5. Apul, D.S., Eighmy, T.T., Gardner, K.H., Frizzell, T.J., Linder, E., and Roberson, R. (2003) Use of Bayesian methods to estimate long term contaminant leaching in roadways, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Environmental and Technical Implications of Construction with Alternative Materials, G. Ortiz de Urbina, J.J.M. Goumans Eds, pp. 601-608, San Sebastian, Spain, June 4-6, 2003.
6. Apul, D.S., Gardner, K., Eighmy, T., Linder, E., Frizzell, T., and Roberson, R. (2005) Probabilistic modeling of one dimensional water movement and leaching from highway embankments containing secondary materials, Environmental Engineering Science, 22(2), p 249-262.
7. Apul, D.S., Gardner, K., Eighmy, Fallman A-M., and Comans, R.N.J. (2005) Simultaneous application of dissolution/precipitation and surface complexation / precipitation modeling to contaminant leaching from weathered steel slag, Environmental Science and Technology, 39(15); 5736-5741.
8. Apul, D.S., Gardner, K.H., and Eighmy, T.T. (2005) Two dimensional modeling of contaminant transport in roads, International Workshop on Water in Pavements – WIP’05 Conference Proceedings, October 2005, Madrid, Spain
9. Miller, E.L. and Apul, D.S. (2005) Effects of average daily traffic, overlay date, and pavement conditions on highway runoff metal concentrations, International Workshop on Water in Pavements – WIP’05 Conference Proceedings, October 2005, Madrid, Spain
10. Apul, D.S., Gardner, K.H. and Eighmy, T.T. (2005) Implications of roadway water movement for beneficial use of recycled materials, in The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Water Pollution Series 5F: Environmental Impact Assessment of Recycled Hazardous Waste Materials on Surface and Ground Waters, Volume 1: Concepts; Methodology and Chemical Analysis, edited by T.A.T. Aboul-Kassim and K.J. Williamson, Springer-Verlag. pp. 241-269.
11. Apul, D.S., Gardner, K.H., and Eighmy, T.T. (2005) Computer modeling and CCPs, Ash at Work (Published by American Coal Ash Association), Issue 2.
12. Chowdhury, R. and Apul, D.S. (2006) A Comparative Environmental Analysis of Embankments Constructed from Conventional Materials and Industrial Byproducts, Conference proceedings of the 85th Transportation Research Board meeting, September 2006
13. Apul, D.S., Gardner, K.H., and Eighmy, T.T. (2006) Long term contaminant release and transport from base layers of roads, WASCON 2006 Conference Proceedings, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
14. Miller, E.L., Apul, D.S., Jain, V., and Diaz, M (2006) Release of metals from asphalt concrete to road runoff, WASCON 2006 Conference Proceedings, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro.
15. Apul, D.S, Gardner, K.H., and Eighmy, T.T. (2007) Modeling hydrology and reactive transport in roads: The effect of cracks, the edge, and contaminant properties, Waste Management, 27, 1465-1475.
16. Jain, V. and Apul, D.S. (2007) Mass Flux Relations of Various Pollutants in Road Runoff, Air and Waste Management Association 100th Annual Conference Proceedings, Pittsburgh, PA
17. Apul, D.S. (2007) Development of a Beneficial Reuse Tool for Managing Industrial Byproducts: BenReMod-LCA and BenReMod-MCDA Web Based Tools, Report to USEPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER)
18. Chowdhury, R. Apul, D.S., and Fry, T. (2010) A Life cycle based environmental impacts assessment of construction materials used in road construction, Resources Conservation and Recycling, 54(4), 250-255.
19. Apul, D.S., Miller, E., and Jain, V. (in press) Road runoff metal concentrations in Toledo, Ohio and their relation to average daily traffic and age of pavement overlay, Water Science and Technology.
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