Dr. Apul's teaching philosophy is based on problem based learning and Fink's taxonomy of significant learning. A lot of course design is done upfront. Her sustainability course is an example of a well designed engineering course at the DesignLearning website.

All courses by Dr. Apul are taught using Blackboard or Epsilen and enhanced with Wiki technology. Active learning and project based learning are widely used in all classes. Dr. Apul and her students often work on real projects and many of the classes culminate in students presenting their work to the clients and stakeholders. Here are some local data we collected and analyzed in service projects in our sustainability classes.

Client's Annual emissions
(MT CO2e)
University of Toledo
CIVE 4900
Spring 2010, 2011
City of Toledo
CIVE 6900/8900
Fall 2010
Lucas County
CIVE 6900/8900
Fall 2010
Toledo Metroparks
CIVE 4690/5690
Spring 2012

University of Toledo's Carbon Footprint is ~ 81,000 MT CO2E. This image shows the breakdown of emissions as estimated in Spring 2011 CIVE 4900 class.

Sustainability concepts are also meshed into all of Dr. Apul's courses. Please scroll down to read more and also visit our Civil Engineering Department Sustainability Curriculum website.


CIVE 1000 Freshman Civil Engineering Experience

Fall 2012 Syllabus
Fall 2012 Schedule and Assignments
This class typically has 50 to 70 students every year. Students work on projects in teams and present a poster on their work at a professional conference. Fall 2012's project can be downloaded from the Discovery-Press webpage. To see which projects freshmen engineering students are working on at other schools, please visit the full list hosted by Discovery Press.

CIVE 6670/8670 Life Cycle Engineering

2012 Course Schedule

CIVE 1170 Fluid Mechanics for Civil Engineers

Example of fluid mechanics collaborative project .

CIVE 4690/5690 Sustainability Engineering

This course develops students' abilities to apply the principles of sustainability to engineered systems. Course topics include sustainability and sustainability engineering definition, life cycle engineering, green construction, ecological and whole system design theory, and energy and carbon footprint management. This course was taught face to face for several years. Starting in Spring 2015, it is being offered as an online course only. Spring 2015 Sylllabus including course objectives can be accessed here.

CIVE 2550 Sustainability Problem Solving

I am developing a brand new course that will involve fundamental sustainability skills, project management skills, and entrepreneurship. We are very excited about this new course; send me an email if you want to learn more!


CIVE 3630 Wastewater engineering

Example syllabus , links for wastewater course.

CIVE 6900/8900 Sustainability Science and Engineering

In Fall 2010, CIVE 6900/8900 students developed the first greenhouse gas inventory for the City of Toledo and Lucas County government operations. They presented their work to a large audience of faculty and students as well as City of Toledo, Lucas County staff. Many professionals from the energy and sustainability industry were also present.

CIVE 6930/8930 Environmental Engineering Chemistry

This course was offered only once in Fall 2005 and is no longer being taught.

CI5980 Sustainable engineering and science: Focus on water

Outreach class for teachers. This course was taught only once in Fall 2008.

Focus on Soils

In May of 2008, Dr. Apul taught "application of probabilistic methods for chemical modeling" at SLU's Focus On Soilsin Uppsala, Sweden.


Carbon Footprint Analysis Projects

  • The first greenhouse gas inventory and climate action plan for Toledo Metroparks (Spring 2012).Presentation
  • The first greenhouse gas inventory for University of Toledo main campus. (Spring 2010) Presentation
  • The first Climate Action Plan for University of Toledo main campus. (Spring 2011) Presentation Report.
  • The first greenhouse gas inventories for City of Toledo and Lucas County operations (Fall 2010) Presentation

Rainwater Harvesting Projects

  • North Engineering Building renovation: A comparative analysis of possible use of rain water harvesting, grey water recycling and composting toilets. (Fall 2008) Presentation, Report.
  • Watering solutions for the University of Toledo’s newly formed outdoor classroom garden. (Fall 2009) Presentation, Report.
  • Faculty advisor for the student team that evaluated rainwater harvesting design options for University of Toledo. (Fall 2012) Presentation, Report.

Food Composting Project

  • Faculty advisor for the student team that designed a composting facility for University of Toledo’s food waste. (Spring 2011) Report.

Green Roof Project

  • Sustainability analysis of possible installation of a green roof on University of Toledo’s North Engineering Building. (Fall 2008) Presentation, Report.

Various Projects by Freshmen Students

Fall 2011: Students developed sustainable civil engineering solutions to on campus projects. Twelve teams from the class presented their work at the regional sustainability conference: Sustainable U: Perspectives in Sustainability on Higher Education and Beyond in Northwest Ohio, Bowling Green, October 2011. See photos at the bottom of this page.
  • Project 1: Retrofitting Carter Hall with Energy Efficient Windows
  • Project 2: Solar powered video boards at Glass Bowl
  • Project 3: Rainwater harvesting at Student Union
  • Project 4: Permeable pavement parking lot at Scott Park
  • Project 5 and 6: Carlson Bridge replacement
  • Project 7: Roundabout construction on Douglas Road
  • Projects 8 and 9: Douglas Road bridge construction
  • Project 10: Parks Steps replacement
  • Project 11: Green roofing Carter Hall
  • Project 12: Ottawa River Geotextile based erosion control

Fall 2012: Students formed 17 teams and evaluated two civil engineering technologies based technical, social, economic, and environmental performance criteria. The teams presented their work at the regional sustainability conference: Sustainable U which was held in November 1, 2012, Toledo, OH.


May 2008 Photo taken during the break of Focus on Soils Course in Uppsala, Sweden

2009 Spring Sustainability Class After Presenting on the First GHG Inventory of University of Toledo

2010 Fall Sustainability Class celebrating at the Maumee Bay Brewery the success of the City of Toledo and Lucas County GHG Inventory Project

2011 CIVE 1000 Students Presenting Their Design Work at the Regional Sustainability Conference
Ottawa River erosion control

Carter Windows Retrofit

Plastic pedestrian bridge

Roundabout for Douglas Rd.

Residence hall green roofing

Treated water reduction

PV powered video boards
Permeable pavement

Douglas Rd. pedestrian bridge

Walkway steps

Douglas road pedestrian bridge

Carson pedestrian bridge

2011 CIVE 1000 Students Presenting Their Design Work at the Regional Sustainability Conference